Useful references and information for OsteoDx’s Cortical Bone Mechanics Technology™

Below is a list of references for Mechanical Response Tissue Analysis (MRTA)

Young, D.R., Howard, W.H., Cann, C., and Steele, C.R., 1979, Noninvasive measures of bone bending rigidity in the monkey (M. nemestrina). Calcified Tissue International, 27, 109–115.

Steele, C.R., Zhou, L.J., Guido, D., Marcus, R., Heinrichs, W.L., and Cheema, C., 1988, Noninvasive determination of ulnar stiffness from mechanical response – in vivo comparison of stiffness and bone mineral content in humans. Journal of Biomechanical Engineering, 110, 87–96.

Arnaud, S.B., Steele, C.R., Zhou, L.J., Hutchinson, T., and Marcus, R., 1991, A direct non-invasive measure of long bone strength. IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology, 13, 1984–1985.

McCabe, F., Zhou, L.J., Steele, C.R., and Marcus, R., 1991, Noninvasive assessment of ulnar bending stiffness in women. Journal of Bone & Mineral Research, 6, 53–59.

Myburgh, K.H., Zhou, L.J., Steele, C.R., Arnaud, S., and Marcus, R., 1992, In vivo assessment of forearm bone mass and ulnar bending stiffness in healthy men. Journal of Bone & Mineral Research, 7, 1345–1350.

Myburgh, K.H., Charette, S., Zhou, L., Steele, C.R., Arnaud, S., and Marcus, R., 1993, Influence of recreational activity and muscle strength on ulnar bending stiffness in men. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, 25, 592–596.

Smith, A.R., Burshell, A., Lindberg, J., Bober, M., and Davies, M., 1994, Preservation of mechanical properties in secondary hyperparathyroidism: Ulnar stiffness and bone mineral density in end stage renal disease. Journal of Bone and Mineral Research, 9
(Suppl 1), S115.

Roberts, S.G., Hutchinson, T.M., Arnaud, S.B., Kiratli, B.J., Martin, R.B., and Steele, C.R., 1996, Noninvasive determination of bone mechanical properties using vibration response: A refined model and validation in vivo. Journal of Biomechanics, 29, 91–98.

Kiebzak, G.M., Box, J.H., and Box, P., 1999, Decreased ulnar bending stiffness in osteoporotic Caucasian women. Journal of Clinical Densitometry, 2, 143–152.

Hutchinson, T.M., Bakulin, A.V., Rakhmanov, A.S., Martin, R.B., Steele, C.R., and Arnaud, S.B., 2001, Effects of chair restraint on the strength of the tibia in rhesus monkeys. Journal of Medical Primatology, 30, 313–321.

Djokoto, C., Tomlinson, G., Waldman, S., Grynpas, M., and Cheung, A.M., 2004, Relationship among MRTA, DXA, and QUS. Journal of Clinical Densitometry, 7, 448–456.

Liang, M.T., Arnaud, S.B., Steele, C.R., Hatch, P., and Moreno, A., 2005, Ulnar and tibial bending stiffness as an index of bone strength in synchronized swimmers and gymnasts. European Journal of Applied Physiology, 94, 400–407.

Miller, L.E., Wootten, D.F., Nickols-Richardson, S.M., Ramp, W.K., Steele, C.R., Cotton, J.R., Carneal, J.P., and Herbert, W.G., 2007, Isokinetic training increases ulnar bending stiffness and bone mineral in young women. Bone, 41, 685–689.

Miller, L.E., Nickols-Richardson, S.M., Wootten, D.F., Ramp, W.K., Steele, C.R., Cotton, J.R., Carneal, J.P., and Herbert, W.G., 2009, Isokinetic resistance training increases tibial bending stiffness in young women. Calcified Tissue International, 84, 446–452

Wynnyckyj, C., Omelon, S., Savage, K., Damani, M., Chachra, D., and Grynpas, M.D., 2009, A new tool to assess the mechanical properties of bone due to collagen degradation. Bone, 44, 840–848.

Wynnyckyj, C., Willett, T.L., Omelon, S., Wang, J., Wang, Z., and Grynpas, M.D., 2011, Changes in bone fatigue resistance due to collagen degradation. Journal of Orthopaedic Research, 29, 197–203.

Miller, L.E., Ramp, W.K., Steele, C.R., Nickols-Richardson, S.M., and Herbert, W.G., 2013,  Rationale, design and clinical performance of the mechanical response tissue analyser: a non-invasive technology for measurement of long bone bending stiffness J Med Eng Technol, 37(2): 144–149.